Difference between revisions of "Praseo nouns"

m (Testing upload)
m (Updated from markdown source)
 
(8 intermediate revisions by one user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 +
[[Category:Prasa]] [[Category:Praseo language]]
 +
 
The Praseo noun is inflected for case and number, across five different noun classes. There are six cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, instrumental, dative, and construct; and two numbers: singular and plural. The five different noun classes have a vague semantic basis, but with numerous exceptions and inconsistency.
 
The Praseo noun is inflected for case and number, across five different noun classes. There are six cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, instrumental, dative, and construct; and two numbers: singular and plural. The five different noun classes have a vague semantic basis, but with numerous exceptions and inconsistency.
  
Line 10: Line 12:
  
 
{|
 
{|
!Case
+
! Case
!Sg
+
! Sg
!Pl
+
! Pl
 
|-
 
|-
|''Nom''
+
| ''Nom''
|eza
+
| eza
|ezi
+
| ezi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Acc''
+
| ''Acc''
|ezeõa
+
| ezẽoa
|ezeõi
+
| ezẽoi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Gen''
+
| ''Gen''
|ezanda
+
| ezanda
|ezanzi
+
| ezanzi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Instr''
+
| ''Instr''
|ezõ
+
| ezõ
|ezẽi
+
| ezẽi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Dat''
+
| ''Dat''
|ezoa
+
| ezoa
|ezuśi
+
| ezuśi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Cons''
+
| ''Cons''
|ezei
+
| ezei
|ezeira
+
| ezeira
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 43: Line 45:
 
The E-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel ''-e'' in the singular and the vowel ''-a'' in the plural. The E-class nouns contain female humans, some abstract nouns, some female animals, and a few inanimate nouns. It is notable that the plural desinence for this class is ''-a'', same as the singular desinence for A-class nouns, and that this reversal repeats itself throughout the paradigm, most notably in the instrumental, for which the desinences are precisely reversed.
 
The E-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel ''-e'' in the singular and the vowel ''-a'' in the plural. The E-class nouns contain female humans, some abstract nouns, some female animals, and a few inanimate nouns. It is notable that the plural desinence for this class is ''-a'', same as the singular desinence for A-class nouns, and that this reversal repeats itself throughout the paradigm, most notably in the instrumental, for which the desinences are precisely reversed.
  
yiśe "girl"
+
yiśe "girl"
  
 
{|
 
{|
!Case
+
! Case
!Sg
+
! Sg
!Pl
+
! Pl
 
|-
 
|-
|''Nom''
+
| ''Nom''
|yiśe
+
| yiśe
|yiśa
+
| yiśa
 
|-
 
|-
|''Acc''
+
| ''Acc''
|yiśeõe
+
| yiśẽoe
|yiśeõa
+
| yiśẽoa
 
|-
 
|-
|''Gen''
+
| ''Gen''
|yiśande
+
| yiśande
|yiśanda
+
| yiśanda
 
|-
 
|-
|''Instr''
+
| ''Instr''
|yiśẽi
+
| yiśẽi
|yiśõ
+
| yiśõ
 
|-
 
|-
|''Dat''
+
| ''Dat''
|yiśoe
+
| yiśoe
|yiśuśa
+
| yiśuśa
 
|-
 
|-
|''Cons''
+
| ''Cons''
|yiśei
+
| yiśei
|yiśeira
+
| yiśeira
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 82: Line 84:
  
 
{|
 
{|
!Case
+
! Case
!Sg
+
! Sg
!Pl
+
! Pl
 
|-
 
|-
|''Nom''
+
| ''Nom''
|razu
+
| razu
|razi
+
| razi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Acc''
+
| ''Acc''
|razeõ
+
| razẽo
|razẽi
+
| razẽi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Gen''
+
| ''Gen''
|razanzu
+
| razanzu
|razanzi
+
| razanzi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Instr''
+
| ''Instr''
|razõ
+
| razõ
|razẽi
+
| razẽi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Dat''
+
| ''Dat''
|razú
+
| razú
|razuśi
+
| razuśi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Cons''
+
| ''Cons''
|razí
+
| razí
|razira
+
| razira
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
== N-Class Nouns ==
 
== N-Class Nouns ==
  
The N-class nouns are characterized by a final vowel ''-ã'' in the nominative singular, and a nasalized final vowel throughout the paradigm. They also have a high degree of homophony between the various forms. N-class nouns generally refer to humans and are derived from verbs or other nouns via an agentive suffix.
+
The N-class nouns are characterized by a final vowel ''-ã'' in the nominative singular, and a nasalized final vowel throughout the paradigm. They also have a high degree of homophony between the various forms. N-class nouns generally refer to humans and are derived from verbs or other nouns via an agentive suffix.
  
akã "chief"
+
akã "chief"
  
 
{|
 
{|
!Case
+
! Case
!Sg
+
! Sg
!Pl
+
! Pl
 
|-
 
|-
|''Nom''
+
| ''Nom''
|akã
+
| akã
|akẽi
+
| akẽi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Acc''
+
| ''Acc''
|akãoa
+
| akãoa
|akãoi
+
| akãoi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Gen''
+
| ''Gen''
|akanda
+
| akanda
|akanzi
+
| akanzi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Instr''
+
| ''Instr''
|akãoa
+
| akãoa
|akãoi
+
| akãoi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Dat''
+
| ''Dat''
|akãoa
+
| akãoa
|akãośi
+
| akãośi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Cons''
+
| ''Cons''
|akẽi
+
| akẽi
|akẽira
+
| akẽira
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 154: Line 156:
  
 
{|
 
{|
!Case
+
! Case
!Sg
+
! Sg
 
|-
 
|-
|''Nom''
+
| ''Nom''
|jili
+
| jili
 
|-
 
|-
|''Acc''
+
| ''Acc''
|jileõi
+
| jilẽoi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Gen''
+
| ''Gen''
|jilanzi
+
| jilanzi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Instr''
+
| ''Instr''
|jilẽi
+
| jilẽi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Dat''
+
| ''Dat''
|jiluśi
+
| jiluśi
 
|-
 
|-
|''Cons''
+
| ''Cons''
|jilí
+
| jilí
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 184: Line 186:
 
Example of nominative and accusative cases:
 
Example of nominative and accusative cases:
  
<pre>Yira      chipeõ kazẽya
+
<pre>Yira      čipẽo kazẽya
 
Child-NOM jar-ACC breaks.</pre>
 
Child-NOM jar-ACC breaks.</pre>
 
''The child breaks the jar.''
 
''The child breaks the jar.''
Line 190: Line 192:
 
The '''instrumental''' case is used to indicate the tools or instrument by which an action occurs, the cause or reason for an action, or the agent of a passive verb.
 
The '''instrumental''' case is used to indicate the tools or instrument by which an action occurs, the cause or reason for an action, or the agent of a passive verb.
  
<pre>    Urhõ       śeśyatsu.
+
<pre>    Urhõ       śeśyatsu.
 
(I) hammer-INST crush-it.</pre>
 
(I) hammer-INST crush-it.</pre>
 
''I crush it with a hammer.''
 
''I crush it with a hammer.''
Line 196: Line 198:
 
The '''dative''' case is used with reference to people to indicate the recipient or beneficiary of an action. With words indicating times or places, the dative indicates location. The objects of most prepositions are in the dative case, as well.
 
The '''dative''' case is used with reference to people to indicate the recipient or beneficiary of an action. With words indicating times or places, the dative indicates location. The objects of most prepositions are in the dative case, as well.
  
<pre>Nioa  uyeõa     enzoe      taomya.
+
<pre>Nioa  uyẽoa     enzoe      taomya.
 
I-NOM fish-ACC  sister-DAT give.</pre>
 
I-NOM fish-ACC  sister-DAT give.</pre>
 
''I give a fish to my sister.''
 
''I give a fish to my sister.''
  
<pre>Oirdazú   dasu    omya.
+
<pre>Oirdazú   dasu    umya.
 
Forest-DAT bird-NOM flies.</pre>
 
Forest-DAT bird-NOM flies.</pre>
 
''The bird flies in the forest.''
 
''The bird flies in the forest.''
Line 206: Line 208:
 
The '''genitive''' and '''construct''' case are used together in the possessive construction. The possessor is placed in the genitive case, and the possessum is placed in the construct case. In this construction, any other case that the possessum would normally have due to its position as the object of a verb or of a preposition is ignored.
 
The '''genitive''' and '''construct''' case are used together in the possessive construction. The possessor is placed in the genitive case, and the possessum is placed in the construct case. In this construction, any other case that the possessum would normally have due to its position as the object of a verb or of a preposition is ignored.
  
<pre>Nioa  zulí       ezande    śenya.
+
<pre>Nioa  zulí       ezande    śenya.
 
I-NOM house-CONS mother-GEN stay.</pre>
 
I-NOM house-CONS mother-GEN stay.</pre>
 
''I stay in my mother's house.''
 
''I stay in my mother's house.''
  
 
Note in this example that the word ''zulu'' &quot;house&quot; would normally occur in the dative case, indicating location, but that due to the possessive construction the dative ending is replaced with the construct.
 
Note in this example that the word ''zulu'' &quot;house&quot; would normally occur in the dative case, indicating location, but that due to the possessive construction the dative ending is replaced with the construct.

Latest revision as of 01:27, 1 June 2016


The Praseo noun is inflected for case and number, across five different noun classes. There are six cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, instrumental, dative, and construct; and two numbers: singular and plural. The five different noun classes have a vague semantic basis, but with numerous exceptions and inconsistency.

Nominal paradigms

A-Class Nouns

The a-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel -a in the singular and the final vowel -i in the plural in most cases. The A-class nouns contain male humans, most female animals, and a few inanimate nouns.

eza "father"

Case Sg Pl
Nom eza ezi
Acc ezẽoa ezẽoi
Gen ezanda ezanzi
Instr ezõ ezẽi
Dat ezoa ezuśi
Cons ezei ezeira

E-Class Nouns

The E-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel -e in the singular and the vowel -a in the plural. The E-class nouns contain female humans, some abstract nouns, some female animals, and a few inanimate nouns. It is notable that the plural desinence for this class is -a, same as the singular desinence for A-class nouns, and that this reversal repeats itself throughout the paradigm, most notably in the instrumental, for which the desinences are precisely reversed.

yiśe "girl"

Case Sg Pl
Nom yiśe yiśa
Acc yiśẽoe yiśẽoa
Gen yiśande yiśanda
Instr yiśẽi yiśõ
Dat yiśoe yiśuśa
Cons yiśei yiśeira

U-Class Nouns

The U-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel -u in the singular and the vowel -i in the plural. The U-class nouns contain male animals and most inanimate nouns.

razu "head"

Case Sg Pl
Nom razu razi
Acc razẽo razẽi
Gen razanzu razanzi
Instr razõ razẽi
Dat razú razuśi
Cons razí razira

N-Class Nouns

The N-class nouns are characterized by a final vowel in the nominative singular, and a nasalized final vowel throughout the paradigm. They also have a high degree of homophony between the various forms. N-class nouns generally refer to humans and are derived from verbs or other nouns via an agentive suffix.

akã "chief"

Case Sg Pl
Nom akã akẽi
Acc akãoa akãoi
Gen akanda akanzi
Instr akãoa akãoi
Dat akãoa akãośi
Cons akẽi akẽira

I-Class Nouns

The I-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel -i and lack a plural form. They typically refer to animates which are neither human nor animal (such as fire, wind, lightning, and spirits) and to abstract nouns.

jili "fire"

Case Sg
Nom jili
Acc jilẽoi
Gen jilanzi
Instr jilẽi
Dat jiluśi
Cons jilí

Uses of the Cases

The following list gives only the most prototypical use of the cases with a few examples.

The nominative case is used for the subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs, as in most Indo-European languages. Additionally, it is the case used for the objects of a few prepositions. The accusative case is used for the patient of transitive verbs.

Example of nominative and accusative cases:

Yira      čipẽo  kazẽya
Child-NOM jar-ACC breaks.

The child breaks the jar.

The instrumental case is used to indicate the tools or instrument by which an action occurs, the cause or reason for an action, or the agent of a passive verb.

    Urhõ        śeśyatsu.
(I) hammer-INST crush-it.

I crush it with a hammer.

The dative case is used with reference to people to indicate the recipient or beneficiary of an action. With words indicating times or places, the dative indicates location. The objects of most prepositions are in the dative case, as well.

Nioa  uyẽoa     enzoe      taomya.
I-NOM fish-ACC  sister-DAT give.

I give a fish to my sister.

Oirdazú    dasu     umya.
Forest-DAT bird-NOM flies.

The bird flies in the forest.

The genitive and construct case are used together in the possessive construction. The possessor is placed in the genitive case, and the possessum is placed in the construct case. In this construction, any other case that the possessum would normally have due to its position as the object of a verb or of a preposition is ignored.

Nioa  zulí       ezande     śenya.
I-NOM house-CONS mother-GEN stay.

I stay in my mother's house.

Note in this example that the word zulu "house" would normally occur in the dative case, indicating location, but that due to the possessive construction the dative ending is replaced with the construct.