Difference between revisions of "Praseo nouns"

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[[Category:Prasa]] [[Category:Praseo language]]
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% vim: fo= ft=markdown
  
The Praseo noun is inflected for case and number, across five different noun classes. There are six cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, instrumental, dative, and construct; and two numbers: singular and plural. The five different noun classes have a vague semantic basis, but with numerous exceptions and inconsistency.
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[[Category:Prasa]]
 +
[[Category:Praseo language]]
  
= Nominal paradigms =
+
The Praseo noun is inflected for case and number, across five different noun classes. There
 +
are six cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, instrumental, dative, and construct; and
 +
two numbers: singular and plural. The five different noun classes have a vague semantic
 +
basis, but with numerous exceptions and inconsistency.
  
== A-Class Nouns ==
+
# Nominal paradigms
  
The a-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel ''-a'' in the singular and the final vowel ''-i'' in the plural in most cases. The A-class nouns contain male humans, most female animals, and a few inanimate nouns.
+
## A-Class Nouns
  
eza "father"
+
The a-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel *-a* in the singular and the final
 +
vowel *-i* in the plural in most cases. The A-class nouns contain male humans, most female
 +
animals, and a few inanimate nouns.
  
{|
+
eza "father"
!Case
+
!Sg
+
!Pl
+
|-
+
|''Nom''
+
|eza
+
|ezi
+
|-
+
|''Acc''
+
|ezẽoa
+
|ezẽoi
+
|-
+
|''Gen''
+
|ezanda
+
|ezanzi
+
|-
+
|''Instr''
+
|ezõ
+
|ezẽi
+
|-
+
|''Dat''
+
|ezoa
+
|ezuśi
+
|-
+
|''Cons''
+
|ezei
+
|ezeira
+
|}
+
  
== E-Class Nouns ==
+
Case    Sg          Pl
 +
----    --          --
 +
*Nom*    eza        ezi
 +
*Acc*    ezẽoa      ezẽoi
 +
*Gen*    ezanda      ezanzi
 +
*Instr*  ezõ        ezẽi
 +
*Dat*    ezoa        ezuśi
 +
*Cons*    ezei        ezeira
  
The E-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel ''-e'' in the singular and the vowel ''-a'' in the plural. The E-class nouns contain female humans, some abstract nouns, some female animals, and a few inanimate nouns. It is notable that the plural desinence for this class is ''-a'', same as the singular desinence for A-class nouns, and that this reversal repeats itself throughout the paradigm, most notably in the instrumental, for which the desinences are precisely reversed.
+
## E-Class Nouns
  
yiśe "girl"
+
The E-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel *-e* in the singular and the vowel
 +
*-a* in the plural. The E-class nouns contain female humans, some abstract nouns, some
 +
female animals, and a few inanimate nouns. It is notable that the plural desinence for this
 +
class is *-a*, same as the singular desinence for A-class nouns, and that this reversal
 +
repeats itself throughout the paradigm, most notably in the instrumental, for which the
 +
desinences are precisely reversed.
  
{|
+
yiśe "girl"
!Case
+
!Sg
+
!Pl
+
|-
+
|''Nom''
+
|yiśe
+
|yiśa
+
|-
+
|''Acc''
+
|yiśẽoe
+
|yiśẽoa
+
|-
+
|''Gen''
+
|yiśande
+
|yiśanda
+
|-
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|''Instr''
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|yiśẽi
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|yiśõ
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|-
+
|''Dat''
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|yiśoe
+
|yiśuśa
+
|-
+
|''Cons''
+
|yiśei
+
|yiśeira
+
|}
+
  
== U-Class Nouns ==
+
Case    Sg          Pl
 +
----    --          --
 +
*Nom*    yiśe        yiśa
 +
*Acc*    yiśẽoe      yiśẽoa
 +
*Gen*    yiśande    yiśanda
 +
*Instr*  yiśẽi      yiśõ
 +
*Dat*    yiśoe      yiśuśa
 +
*Cons*    yiśei      yiśeira
  
The U-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel ''-u'' in the singular and the vowel ''-i'' in the plural. The U-class nouns contain male animals and most inanimate nouns.
+
## U-Class Nouns
  
razu "head"
+
The U-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel *-u* in the singular and the vowel
 +
*-i* in the plural. The U-class nouns contain male animals and most inanimate nouns.
  
{|
+
razu "head"
!Case
+
!Sg
+
!Pl
+
|-
+
|''Nom''
+
|razu
+
|razi
+
|-
+
|''Acc''
+
|razẽo
+
|razẽi
+
|-
+
|''Gen''
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|razanzu
+
|razanzi
+
|-
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|''Instr''
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|razõ
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|razẽi
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|-
+
|''Dat''
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|razú
+
|razuśi
+
|-
+
|''Cons''
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|razí
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|razira
+
|}
+
  
== N-Class Nouns ==
+
Case    Sg          Pl
 +
----    --          --
 +
*Nom*    razu        razi
 +
*Acc*    razẽo      razẽi
 +
*Gen*    razanzu    razanzi
 +
*Instr*  razõ        razẽi
 +
*Dat*    razú        razuśi
 +
*Cons*    razí        razira
  
The N-class nouns are characterized by a final vowel ''-ã'' in the nominative singular, and a nasalized final vowel throughout the paradigm. They also have a high degree of homophony between the various forms. N-class nouns generally refer to humans and are derived from verbs or other nouns via an agentive suffix.
+
## N-Class Nouns
  
akã "chief"
+
The N-class nouns are characterized by a final vowel *-ã* in the nominative singular, and a
 +
nasalized final vowel throughout the paradigm. They also have a high degree of homophony
 +
between the various forms. N-class nouns generally refer to humans and are derived from
 +
verbs or other nouns via an agentive suffix.
  
{|
+
akã "chief"
!Case
+
!Sg
+
!Pl
+
|-
+
|''Nom''
+
|akã
+
|akẽi
+
|-
+
|''Acc''
+
|akãoa
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|akãoi
+
|-
+
|''Gen''
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|akanda
+
|akanzi
+
|-
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|''Instr''
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|akãoa
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|akãoi
+
|-
+
|''Dat''
+
|akãoa
+
|akãośi
+
|-
+
|''Cons''
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|akẽi
+
|akẽira
+
|}
+
  
== I-Class Nouns ==
+
Case    Sg          Pl
 +
----    --          --
 +
*Nom*    akã        akẽi
 +
*Acc*    akãoa      akãoi
 +
*Gen*    akanda      akanzi
 +
*Instr*  akãoa      akãoi
 +
*Dat*    akãoa      akãośi
 +
*Cons*    akẽi        akẽira
  
The I-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel ''-i'' and lack a plural form. They typically refer to animates which are neither human nor animal (such as fire, wind, lightning, and spirits) and to abstract nouns.
+
## I-Class Nouns
  
jili "fire"
+
The I-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel *-i* and lack a plural form. They
 +
typically refer to animates which are neither human nor animal (such as fire, wind,
 +
lightning, and spirits) and to abstract nouns.
  
{|
+
jili "fire"
!Case
+
!Sg
+
|-
+
|''Nom''
+
|jili
+
|-
+
|''Acc''
+
|jilẽoi
+
|-
+
|''Gen''
+
|jilanzi
+
|-
+
|''Instr''
+
|jilẽi
+
|-
+
|''Dat''
+
|jiluśi
+
|-
+
|''Cons''
+
|jilí
+
|}
+
  
= Uses of the Cases =
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Case    Sg
 +
----    --
 +
*Nom*    jili
 +
*Acc*    jilẽoi
 +
*Gen*    jilanzi
 +
*Instr*  jilẽi
 +
*Dat*    jiluśi
 +
*Cons*    jilí
 +
 
 +
# Uses of the Cases
  
 
The following list gives only the most prototypical use of the cases with a few examples.
 
The following list gives only the most prototypical use of the cases with a few examples.
  
The '''nominative''' case is used for the subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs, as in most Indo-European languages. Additionally, it is the case used for the objects of a few prepositions. The '''accusative''' case is used for the patient of transitive verbs.
+
The **nominative** case is used for the subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs, as in
 +
most Indo-European languages. Additionally, it is the case used for the objects of a few
 +
prepositions. The **accusative** case is used for the patient of transitive verbs.
  
 
Example of nominative and accusative cases:
 
Example of nominative and accusative cases:
  
<pre>Yira      čipẽo  kazẽya
+
    Yira      čipẽo  kazẽya
Child-NOM jar-ACC breaks.</pre>
+
    Child-NOM jar-ACC breaks.
''The child breaks the jar.''
+
*The child breaks the jar.*
  
The '''instrumental''' case is used to indicate the tools or instrument by which an action occurs, the cause or reason for an action, or the agent of a passive verb.
+
The **instrumental** case is used to indicate the tools or instrument by which an action
 +
occurs, the cause or reason for an action, or the agent of a passive verb.
  
<pre>    Urhõ        śeśyatsu.
+
        Urhõ        śeśyatsu.
(I) hammer-INST crush-it.</pre>
+
    (I) hammer-INST crush-it.
''I crush it with a hammer.''
+
*I crush it with a hammer.*
  
The '''dative''' case is used with reference to people to indicate the recipient or beneficiary of an action. With words indicating times or places, the dative indicates location. The objects of most prepositions are in the dative case, as well.
+
The **dative** case is used with reference to people to indicate the recipient or
 +
beneficiary of an action. With words indicating times or places, the dative indicates
 +
location. The objects of most prepositions are in the dative case, as well.
  
<pre>Nioa  uyẽoa    enzoe      taomya.
+
    Nioa  uyẽoa    enzoe      taomya.
I-NOM fish-ACC  sister-DAT give.</pre>
+
    I-NOM fish-ACC  sister-DAT give.
''I give a fish to my sister.''
+
*I give a fish to my sister.*
  
<pre>Oirdazú    dasu    umya.
+
    Oirdazú    dasu    umya.
Forest-DAT bird-NOM flies.</pre>
+
    Forest-DAT bird-NOM flies.
''The bird flies in the forest.''
+
*The bird flies in the forest.*
  
The '''genitive''' and '''construct''' case are used together in the possessive construction. The possessor is placed in the genitive case, and the possessum is placed in the construct case. In this construction, any other case that the possessum would normally have due to its position as the object of a verb or of a preposition is ignored.
+
The **genitive** and **construct** case are used together in the possessive construction.
 +
The possessor is placed in the genitive case, and the possessum is placed in the construct
 +
case. In this construction, any other case that the possessum would normally have due to its
 +
position as the object of a verb or of a preposition is ignored.
  
<pre>Nioa  zulí      ezande    śenya.
+
    Nioa  zulí      ezande    śenya.
I-NOM house-CONS mother-GEN stay.</pre>
+
    I-NOM house-CONS mother-GEN stay.
''I stay in my mother's house.''
+
*I stay in my mother's house.*
  
Note in this example that the word ''zulu'' &quot;house&quot; would normally occur in the dative case, indicating location, but that due to the possessive construction the dative ending is replaced with the construct.
+
Note in this example that the word *zulu* "house" would normally occur in the dative case,
 +
indicating location, but that due to the possessive construction the dative ending is
 +
replaced with the construct.

Revision as of 10:43, 12 January 2015

% vim: fo= ft=markdown

The Praseo noun is inflected for case and number, across five different noun classes. There are six cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, instrumental, dative, and construct; and two numbers: singular and plural. The five different noun classes have a vague semantic basis, but with numerous exceptions and inconsistency.

  1. Nominal paradigms
    1. A-Class Nouns

The a-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel *-a* in the singular and the final vowel *-i* in the plural in most cases. The A-class nouns contain male humans, most female animals, and a few inanimate nouns.

eza "father"

Case Sg Pl


-- --
  • Nom* eza ezi
  • Acc* ezẽoa ezẽoi
  • Gen* ezanda ezanzi
  • Instr* ezõ ezẽi
  • Dat* ezoa ezuśi
  • Cons* ezei ezeira
    1. E-Class Nouns

The E-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel *-e* in the singular and the vowel

  • -a* in the plural. The E-class nouns contain female humans, some abstract nouns, some

female animals, and a few inanimate nouns. It is notable that the plural desinence for this class is *-a*, same as the singular desinence for A-class nouns, and that this reversal repeats itself throughout the paradigm, most notably in the instrumental, for which the desinences are precisely reversed.

yiśe "girl"

Case Sg Pl


-- --
  • Nom* yiśe yiśa
  • Acc* yiśẽoe yiśẽoa
  • Gen* yiśande yiśanda
  • Instr* yiśẽi yiśõ
  • Dat* yiśoe yiśuśa
  • Cons* yiśei yiśeira
    1. U-Class Nouns

The U-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel *-u* in the singular and the vowel

  • -i* in the plural. The U-class nouns contain male animals and most inanimate nouns.

razu "head"

Case Sg Pl


-- --
  • Nom* razu razi
  • Acc* razẽo razẽi
  • Gen* razanzu razanzi
  • Instr* razõ razẽi
  • Dat* razú razuśi
  • Cons* razí razira
    1. N-Class Nouns

The N-class nouns are characterized by a final vowel *-ã* in the nominative singular, and a nasalized final vowel throughout the paradigm. They also have a high degree of homophony between the various forms. N-class nouns generally refer to humans and are derived from verbs or other nouns via an agentive suffix.

akã "chief"

Case Sg Pl


-- --
  • Nom* akã akẽi
  • Acc* akãoa akãoi
  • Gen* akanda akanzi
  • Instr* akãoa akãoi
  • Dat* akãoa akãośi
  • Cons* akẽi akẽira
    1. I-Class Nouns

The I-class nouns are characterized by the final vowel *-i* and lack a plural form. They typically refer to animates which are neither human nor animal (such as fire, wind, lightning, and spirits) and to abstract nouns.

jili "fire"

Case Sg


--
  • Nom* jili
  • Acc* jilẽoi
  • Gen* jilanzi
  • Instr* jilẽi
  • Dat* jiluśi
  • Cons* jilí
  1. Uses of the Cases

The following list gives only the most prototypical use of the cases with a few examples.

The **nominative** case is used for the subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs, as in most Indo-European languages. Additionally, it is the case used for the objects of a few prepositions. The **accusative** case is used for the patient of transitive verbs.

Example of nominative and accusative cases:

   Yira      čipẽo  kazẽya
   Child-NOM jar-ACC breaks.
  • The child breaks the jar.*

The **instrumental** case is used to indicate the tools or instrument by which an action occurs, the cause or reason for an action, or the agent of a passive verb.

       Urhõ        śeśyatsu.
   (I) hammer-INST crush-it.
  • I crush it with a hammer.*

The **dative** case is used with reference to people to indicate the recipient or beneficiary of an action. With words indicating times or places, the dative indicates location. The objects of most prepositions are in the dative case, as well.

   Nioa  uyẽoa     enzoe      taomya.
   I-NOM fish-ACC  sister-DAT give.
  • I give a fish to my sister.*
   Oirdazú    dasu     umya.
   Forest-DAT bird-NOM flies.
  • The bird flies in the forest.*

The **genitive** and **construct** case are used together in the possessive construction. The possessor is placed in the genitive case, and the possessum is placed in the construct case. In this construction, any other case that the possessum would normally have due to its position as the object of a verb or of a preposition is ignored.

   Nioa  zulí       ezande     śenya.
   I-NOM house-CONS mother-GEN stay.
  • I stay in my mother's house.*

Note in this example that the word *zulu* "house" would normally occur in the dative case, indicating location, but that due to the possessive construction the dative ending is replaced with the construct.